Before European settlement, most of Norfolk Island was covered with subtropical rainforest; among the dominant species were Norfolk Island Pine (Araucaria heterophylla), the world’s tallest treefern, Cyathea brownii, and the Norfolk Island Palm (Rhopalostylis baueri). The island’s 174 native plant species, 51 of them endemic, are now outnumbered by hundreds of introduced weed species. The Norfolk Island National Park, established in 1984, consisting of 4.6 km2 contains the only rainforest remaining,on Norfolk Island proper. On Phillip Island 1.90 km2 are protected as well as the whole of tiny Nepean Island. Norfolk Island’s only native mammals are two species of bat, one of which has not been seen in recent years. Extinctions have been recorded also for endemic bird species and subspecies, while others survive only on the offshore islands.